Joseph Daniel Maddox(1697 ~ 1754)
Joseph Daniel Maddox was born May 4, 1697 in Dover, Chester Co., England (which is Angleterre in French). His parents were Jean and Anne Witby Maddox. They may have died while he was still a child, or perhaps he was indentured out.
In December 1708 when he was only eleven years old, he was part of the army that attacked Saint Jean (St. John's) in Newfoundland occupied by the British. On January 1, 1709, the garrison surrendered to General Joseph de St. Ovide, Monbeton de Brouillan and his 170 Frenchmen, Canadians, and Indians.
In a footnote of the Massachusetts Archives, Vol. 74, pg. 57, Daniel Joseph Maddox is identified as a "naturalized captive." This may have referred to him having been indentured.
St. John's, Newfoundland:
General St Ovide took Daniel with him when he went on to Montreal, Quebec in the Canadas. There Daniel lived on the farm of a monastary. On April 26, 1710, he was baptized at Montreal.
Montreal is an island at the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. It started as a settlement by the St. Lawrence near St. Paul Street, and grew northward from the river. From there it spread around the mountain. It was first known as Mount Royal, so named by Jacques Cartier in 1535. No other explorers went there again until 1603 with Amuel De Champlain. There Champlain laid out a settlement, but no one was there except in the summer by trappers.
Meanwhile, the French wanted to convert the savages, and an "Association of Montreal" was formed, the word "Montreal" having become a general name for that area by then. In 1641 a mission was founded there by some 50 Frenchmen. By 1710 there were 3492 people living in Montreal (a 19th century map is below). It was roughly fortified with ramparts and and palisades in 1685, but did not have stone walls until 1723. The Chateau Ramsay (shown below) was built in 1705, so was there when Joseph arrived.
Montreal, also called Mount Royal by the old timers, was primarily a fur trapping town at first. That was the primary occupation of most of the early colonists. They made big money at it, as we know from John Jacob Astor who made his original fortune this way. The Canadian trappers normally hunted in the winter, and dressed like this, including the snow shoes. He must have begun acting as interpreter between the French-speaking and English-speaking people right away, for he made friends with people down in Deerfield, Franklin Co., Massachusetts.
On Monday, October 3, 1712, Daniel signed as a witness for the marriage of his friend Thomas Becraft, weaver, age 33, to Marie Elizabeth Hurst, 23. The wedding was at Deerfield's Ville Marie Parish. One of the bride's witnesses was Marie Francoise French. Below is an account of what happened to the French family in Deerfield five years earlier, from True Stories of New England Captives: My Hunt for the Captives, pg. 193 (author unknown):
The Marie Francoise French, who appears as one of the witnesses at the wedding of her friend Elizabeth Hurst, was a daughter of deacon Thomas French and his wife, mary Catlin. Deacon French was the town clerk of Deerfield, and also the blacksmith.
The deacon and his children ~ Mary aged seventeen, Thomas fourteen, Freedom eleven, Martha eight, and Abigail six ~ were captured [by Indians]. His wife and their infant John were killed on the retreat. Deacon French and his two eldest children were redeemed. Freedom was placed in the family of Monsieur Jacques LeBer, merchant of Montreal, and on Tuesday the 7th of April 1706, Madame Le Ber had her baptized anew by Father Meriel, under the name of Marie Francoise...being substituted for the Puritanic appelation of Freedom by which she had been known in Deerfield. Her sister Martha was given by her Indian captors to the Sisters of the Congregation at Montreal.
In 1713, at age 16, he married Marie Chevalier. She apparently died, for in 1715, he married Marie-Louise Lacelle. [Footnote, Massachusetts Archives, Vol. 74, pg. 57]
In 1717, Joseph's mentor, Joseph St Ovide, became Governor of Isle Royal as many were still calling it, also known as Montreal. He served for 22 years ~ its longest-serving governor ~ until 1739. This apparently brought many opportunities for Joseph to serve as government interpretor. The above Massachusetts archive footnote also says that Joseph "appears often on Canadian Archives as Interpreter to our ambassadors." There has been some minor confusion over his name, sometimes being called Daniel Joseph. Perhaps he went by his middle name.
More and more Europeans immigrated to North America. Though many treaties followed with the Indians to purchase parts of their land, gradually the Indians realized they could not afford to let any more of their land go. Skirmishes and wars followed. Often it was the British and their Indians against the French and their Indians. But sometimes it was the Indians against the Europeans in general. In 1739 Governor St. Ovide, on behalf of the French, asked the Mi'Kmaq [today usually spelled MicMac] Indians to abstain from fighting, and they honored that request. But in 1749, the British, without consulting the Mi'Kmaq, founded the town of Halifax which was previously a Mi'Kmaw fishing village. So the fighting began again there, as it did elsewhere in North America. The picture below is obviously their summer attire, as Canadian winters were cold and harsh.
The following is from An Extract of the Examination of Four English Traders and published in The Olden Times: A Monthly Publication Devoted to the Preservation of Documents, Vol. II, Neville B. Craig, Editor, reprinted in Cincinnati by Robert clark 1876:
On the 19th day of une 1751 in the forenoon before us, the marquis de la Jonquiere, Knight of the Royal and Military order of Saint Lewis, Admiral and Lieutenant Governor of all New France [Canada] Isle royal, and the territories of Louiosiana; as also in the presence of Baron de Longueuil, Governor of the city and province of Montreal, and M. Varin a director of affairs of the city aforesaid, at a council held in the castle of Vaudreuil, the place of our abode, in Montreal aforesaid.
Personally appeared four Englishmen &c having with us Daniel Joseph Maddox, an English interpreter, duly sworn, and in the King's pay, to serve us in the said quality, to interpret whatever questions and answers might be made between us and the Englishmen aforesaid, who we examined separately.
Archaeological dig in the ruins of Castle Vaudreuil in today's downtown Montreal.
On July 25, 1752, an official report on Indian activities was signed by Phineas Stevens and Nathaniel Wheelright after being interpreted by "Danll Joseph maddox" and also signed by him. The following is found in True Stories of New England Captives, pg. 333, 343, 344:
A List of the English Prisoners which the Abenakis Indians have brought to Quebec. The Saint-Francois Indians to the Number of Forty have struck near Richmond Fort to revenge the Death of an Abenakis Chief which the English have killed near Boston & have Brought in this City the Prisoners following which they have sold to the French who was willing to buy them viz:
M St. Ange Charly....
Those which follow have been taken by the Becancourt Indians and bought of them.
The Cadet Bought John marten he has Obtain'd permission of the Governor General [of Canada] to Return to New England and pass'd his Note [bought his own freedom] to the Sr. Cadet for L 260.
Mrs. Fornel has bought William Ross for L 124 - 10s
Then Algonkins of the same party has bought and sold to the Sr. Amiot Mathew Noble for L 86. For Cloaths Furnish'd P130 - 15s. L 216-15.
One named Solomon whitney made his Escape from amongst the Indians to whom the Governor General was not willing to give him back again. He died at the Hospital 18th Novm 1750
[I believe the first amount of money listed before the pounds was in French denominations.]
Joseph Daniel Maddex died in Montreal 1754 at the age of 57.
Most writeups about his exploits and activities in Canada are in French. The Canadian archives are full of his work as interpreter. The following is a brief summary of his early life:
Il nait le 4 mai 1697 a Dover, Chester, Angleterre. Le le premier janvier 1709 Joseph Daniel maddox et Richard Pears furent prit avec leurs garnison a Saint-Jean de Terre-Neuve et amene par Monsieur de Saint-Ovide a Montreal, Ile de Montreal, quebec, Canada. Il est soldat de garnison a Saint-Jean, Terre-Neuve, Canada. Il vivait sur la ferme du seminaire de Quebec a l'lle Jesus, Quebec. Il est baptise le 26 avril 1710 a Montreal. Il fut fermier des messieurs du seminaires de Quebec a Ile Jesus. Il espouse Marie Jette, fille de Urbain Jette dit Durivage et Marie Chevalier en 1713. Il espouse Marie-Louise Lacelle en 1715. Il decede en 1754 a Montreal.